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Industrial Ecology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the sustainable combination of Business, Environment & Technology. The word 'industrial' represents how humans use natural resources in the production of goods and services. Ecology refers to the concept that our industrial systems should incorporate principles exhibited within sustainable natural ecosystems.
Industrial ecology is the shifting of industrial process from linear (open loop) systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes. Industrial ecology views industrial systems as being integral to ecological systems not separate from them.